Red Square, closely associated with the Kremlin, lies beneath its east wall. At its south end is the famous Cathedral of St Basil the Blessed, one of the most beautiful monuments of Old Russian church architecture, erected in 1555–1560 to commemorate the victory of Ivan the Terrible over the Kazan Khanate. The construction of Red Square was finished by the late 19th century together with the erection of the State Historical Museum and the Upper Trading Rows (GUM). In 1931 Lenin’s Mausoleum, an outstanding example of the Soviet monumental architecture, designed by A.V. Shchusev completed the existing architectural ensemble.